You Know How antibody generate?
Physical and chemical properties
Antibody, an immunoglobulin, is generated by the B cells in the antigenic substance’s stimulation. And it can be reacting with special antigen. Antibody molecule are synthesized and secreted by the plasma cells, and each can produce a plasma cell clone specific antibody molecules, so the antibody in serum is mixed by many kinds of antibody molecules.
Physical and chemical properties of antibody
In the first 40, Tiselius and Kabat had proved the activity of antibody has something to do with the Globulin in serum. They immunized rabbit with the pneumatically and polysaccharide to get the high-quality immunological serum. So they proved that the activity of antibody has something to do with the Globulin.
The biological activity of the antibody
- Specific antibodies and antigen binding antibody production stimulating substance are called an antigen, an antibody and its corresponding antigen molecule binding is called specific binding.
- Binding of antibodies and complement, under certain conditions, the antibody molecule may be presented in the serum complement molecules combination and make it activate, produce a variety of biological effects, complement binding phenomenon and it is known as antibody, antibody molecules revealed inter-molecular interactions complement.
- The third function of antibodies is antibodies can enhance phagocyte role. In experiments in vitriol, the serum added suspension of necrophiliacs and enhancing phagocytes corresponding cells is called as an antibody conditioning.
The production of antibody
In order to study on the Physical and chemical properties, molecular structure and function, and the application of antibodies in clinical diagnosis, treatment and prevention of antibody, we should produce antibody by human beings. Recently, according to the methods and the rules of preparation, we classify the antibody into three kinds: poly-clonal antibodies, monoclonal antibodies and genetically engineered antibodies.
- Poly-clonal antibody
The early conventional antibody preparation method is a natural antigen immunized animals by various routes, as antigenic material with multiple epitopes, it can stimulate the production of a variety of antibody-forming cell clones, synthesis and secretion against various epitopes antibody secreted into the serum or body fluids, it is in fact a mixture of the serum with a variety of antibodies, such known serum by in vivo immunization of the obtained poly-clonal antibody, it is the first generation of antibodies.
- Monoclonal Antibodies
Immune method is difficult to obtain a monoclonal antibody (monoclonal antibody, McAb). The antibody can require forming cells and then it can be selected and cultured to obtain a monoclonal antibody specific of known in vitriol. 1975 German scholar Kohler and Milstein from British got the mouse melanoma cells by sheep red blood cells to immunize mouse splenocytes in vitriol fusion of two cells, and found that both the partially formed hybrid cells can continue in vitriol culture conditions growth and reproduction can secrete anti-SRBC antibody, this is called hybrid hybridism cell line.
3. Genetically engineered antibodies
Since 1975, the advent of monoclonal antibody hybridism technology, monoclonal bodies in medicine is widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea. But the vast majority of the murine monoclonal antibody, when administered in vivo to produce clinical repeated anti-mouse antibody, causing the clinical efficacy diminished or disappeared. Therefore, the clinical application of the ideal of a monoclonal antibody should be of human origin, but the human – human hybridism technology has yet to breakthrough, even if successfully developed, there are also people – human hybrid tumor passages unstable, low antibody affinity and production is not Higher problem. Office failed to present a better solution is to develop genetically engineered antibody, (genetically engineering antibody) in place of the murine monoclonal antibody for clinical use.
This is the brief introduction of the antibody’s origin and production.