Monthly Archives: July 2015

Knowledge about Antibody Array

Introduction for antibody array

Antibody array (also known as antibody array) is a specific form of protein microarrays. In order to detect antigens, a collection of capture antibodies are spotted and fixed on a solid surface such as plastics. The function of antibody array is various. It is often used for detecting protein expression, stretching from cell lysates in general research and special biomarkers from serum or urine for diagnostic applications.

The history of antibody arrays

In 1983, Tse Wen Chang, who worked for Centocor, Inc. In Malvern, pennsylvania, found the concept and methodology of antibody arrays. On the purpose of detecting and quantifying the cells bearing certain surface antigens, such as, viruses and bacteria, and soluble antigens, Chang had invented this. He with another scientist set up a firm and bought the patents of antibody arrays from the former company. The first product was an assay which could can be used to monitor the immune status.

In 2000, the first use of antibody array for the protein-protein interaction and protein post-translational modification analysis in mammalian cells was reported. The first array approaches, which aimed to miniaturize biochemical and immunobiological assays performed in 96-well microtiter plates. 96-well antibody arrays were first created with 144 elements each for “standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays”. Similar arrays were used to measure prostate-specific antigen and cytokines.

The development of antibody arrays in recent years

At present, in the profiling experiments on tissue samples, plasma or serum samples and many other sample types, the antibody arrays are widely used. The main profiling studies for antibody array is cancer. In 2010, it was reported that the application of cancer-related research of antibody microarray comprising 810 different cancer-related antibodies.

The stretch knowledge of antibody array

We have mentioned that the antibody array is a specific form of protein array. The protein array, also known as protein chip, is a high-throughput method, which is used to track the interactions and activities of proteins, and also to determine the function and determining function on a large scale. The advantage of protein array is that it can track the large numbers of proteins in parallel. They are also rapid, automated, economical and highly sensitive, consuming small quantities of samples and reagents.

Conclusion

In a word, protein arrays and antibody arrays are the most important invention for today. Especially for the cancer-related researches, they have helped a lot in this field. To learn more detail knowledge about the two, you can find them on Wiki.

The Difference Between Antigen and Antibody

Summary

Sometimes you may know what is antibody and what is antigen. However, can you be sure that you are able to point the difference between antigen and antibody? If not, you can find the answer in this article.

antigen and antibodyBody

What is antigen

Antigen is a substence, which can stimulate the immune system and induce an immune response. Such as antibodies or sensitized lymphocytes specifical reaction. A complete antigen should be including two parts: immunogenicity and immunoreactivity. The first refers to the substance, which is capable of inducing a host cell to produce an immune response; the second one is also known as reactogenicity, it refers to the antigen, which can react with antibody or sensitized lymphocytes. Some substances, which alone can just have the reactogenicity no immunoreactivity, are called hapten; however immunogen usually has both immune response capability.

What is antibody

Antibody is always called immunoglobulin(Ig). It refers to the immunoglobulin, which have antibody activity and antibody-like structure. Ig, which is about 20% of plasma protein, is produced by plasma cells, existing in blood and other body fluids. Ig structure has heterogeneity, it can be divided into different types; A majority of Ig have antibody activity, they can specifically recognize and bind antigen, and produce a series of biological reactions.

Immune functions of the antibody

Antibody binds to a specific antigen to occur biological effects, the ultimate physiological function is mainly anti-infection, the mechanism can be classified as following aspects:

  1. Toxin neutralization

When the antigen is a bacterial toxin, it binds to the antibody, then they can neutralize toxicity of the host cell. When the antigen is a hormone or enzyme, it binds to the antibody, so it may also be losing its toxicity.

  1. Infection of neutralization

When the virus bind to the corresponding antibody, it may lose its ability to invade into host cells to reproduce.

  1. Phagocytosis conditioning

After antibacterial antibody combined with bacteria, although it can not directly eliminate the cells, being used as the conditioning factor, which promotes phagocytosis of immune cells to engulf bacteria.

  1. Induced lysis

After IgG antibody and IgM antibody bind] to bacteria, they can activate the classical complement activation to lysis pathogens.

  1. Antibody-mediated ADCCIgG class can also mediate NK cells produced to ADCC effector, then it can kill virus-infected target cells and malignant cells.

All in all, sometimes antigen and antibody are very hardly to be separated. We can just tell them from each other by their origins.

These are the main defferences between antigen and antibody. I am not sure if this is helpful for you. But I can be sure that this must let you know more about the two substances.

 

Antibody Engineering and Antibody Engineering Drugs

antibody engineering drugsSummary

In the 21st century, biotechnology and information technology is providing a strong impetus for global economic development. Antibody engineering technology with the development of modern biotechnology and continuous improvement, is the main force of the biotechnology industry, in particular, plays an important role in the field of bio-pharmaceutical technology. In this article, I will introduce something about antibody engineering and its drugs.

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What is antibody engineering

Antibody engineering is the engineering to create the antibody molecules. It is depending on using recombinant DNA and protein engineering technology to modify and antibody gene, after transfecting the proper recipient cells, it use the antibody molecule expression, or cell fusion and chemical modification methods to achieve its goal.

All kinds of antibody engineering

Antibody engineering includes antigens, antibodies, polyclonal antibodies, cell engineering, genetically engineered antibody, purification and identification of antibodies, antibody technology applications and immunological tests

What is antibody engineering drugs

antibody engineering drugs, also called antibody drugs, Monoclonal antibody therapy agent or antibody therapy agent, is used to cure monoclonal antibody, Antibody fragments, antibody improved by gene engineering and Antibody conjugates or Antibody fusion protein.

The importance of antibody engineering drugs

Malignant, the biggest enemy for human health. It is the core cause of human death. The traditional therpy of the it are Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent years, the development of monoclonal antibody drugs has stepped into another stage. Monoclonal antibody can recognize malignant and can effectively improve the lethality of drugs, reduce side effects. Therefore, it attract more attention from people.

In the early 1980s, the research antibody gene structure and function of recombinant DNA technology combined to produce a genetically engineered antibody technology. Then genetically engineered antibody will process the antibody gene according to the different needs, and then introduced into an appropriate recipient cell to express. Genetically antibody engineering includes chimeric antibody, humanization(human reshaped antibody or CDR shift, epitope guided selection EGS and etc.), small monoclular antibody, multivalent and bispecific antibodies and antibody fusion protein

Compared with monoclonal antibody, genetically engineering antibodies have the advantages as follows:

  • Through the transformation of genetic engineering techniques, we can reduce or even eliminate rejection of human antibodies.
  • Genetically engineered antibody of smaller molecular weight can be partially reduced murine antibody, and it is more conducive to penetrate the vessel wall into the core of the lesion site
  • According to the need of treatment, we can prepara new antibodies

This is the brief introduction to antibody engineering and antibody engineering drugs. There are much other details, which is not mentioned. You can find it by yourself.