Polyclonal Antibodies and Monoclonal Antibodies—-Which is More Powerful?
Form of comparision
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by a specific antibody. Monoclonal antibodies can be targeted with a sigle specific epitope binding, it is just like the missile hit the target exactly. On the other hand, even if the same eoitope, the clones can generate several kinds of antibodies in bodies, then it forms a mixture of monoclonal antibodies, which is called polyclone antibodies.
|Polyclonal antibodies||Monoclonal antibodies|
|Low cost||High cost|
|General techniques||High techniques|
|Short time cost||Long time needed for hybridomas|
|A large number of non-specific antibody||A large number of non-specific antibody with strong specificity|
|Many epitopes on any antigens||One epitope on one antigen|
- Polyclonal antibodies may help amplify low level of expression of the target protein signals, since the target protein can bind more than one antibody molecule in multiple epitopes. But this will would adversely affect the quantitative experiments, because the result will be inaccurate.
- Because the polyclonal antibodies can recognize multiple epitopes, it can get better results in IP / ChIP.
- Polyclonal antibodies can give much more space for the antigens than the monoclonal antibodies.
- Polyclonal antibodies can recognize the protein, which has high homology to immunogenic protein. Or it can tissue sample from a non-immunogenic target protein screened species. This is also significant to make the detection immunogen sequence to determine whether there is any crossreactivity.
- Polyclonal antibodies are generally preferred to detect denatured proteins.
- Multi-epitope generally offer more powerful detection.
- Polyclonal antibodies prone to differences between batches.
- Because antisera usually recognize multiple domains, polyclonal antibodies are not suitable for detecting antigens for specific domain.
- It will cause a large amount of non-specific antibodies, sometimes the background signal in certain applications.
- Multi-epitope is very important for detection of the immunogenic epitope sequence, which can be used for determining whether there is any cross-reactivity.
- To identify any multiple epitopes on an antigen. And the sera obtained will contain the mixture of complex heterogeneous, which is generated by the differen affinity antibodies.
- Polyclonal antibodies are mainly formed by IgG subclasses.
- Peptide immunogens is commonly used for targeting a unique epitope polyclonal antibodies, especially for highly homologous protein family.
- Low production cost
- Preparation techniques and skills needed are not high.
- Short preparation time
- After prepared, hybridomas became a constant source of regeneration. All batches will be the same—to ensure constency and standardization eexperimental procedure and to be very helpful to the resulte.
- Monoclonal antibodies are usually cause the low background in the slice and cell staining. Because they are more specific detection of a target epitope. So it is less likely to cross-react with the other proteins.
- Because of specificity, monoclonal antibodies are very suitable for using in an anti-determination, or for detection of the antigen in cells, and the background staining is lower than polyclonal antibodies.
- Compared with polyclonal antibodies, monoclonal antibodies have high homogeneity. Within the same condition of experiment, the results of experiment with monoclonal antibodies has high reproducibit]lity.
- The specificity of monoclonal antibodies can make it bind with antigen in the mixture.
- It can generate a large amount of specific antibodies, but the specificity may be too strong.
- It is much more easier than polyclonal antibodies in lossing epitope, after chemical treated by antigens.
- It only detects one epitope on antigens.
- It is only formed by one antibody subtypes. When we need secondary antibody to detect antibodies, we should select the correct subtypes.
- High techniques are required.
- It can be used after preparation.
- Long time cost for hybridomas
These are comparation between polyclonal antibodies and monoclonal antibodies. We can not tell which one is powerful, because each one of them has its own advantages.